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Overview

What's New?

About GCRC

Cybercartography

Atlases

Research Areas

Indigenous Knowledge

Northern Research

Law, Society & Cybercartography

Geospatial Information Management

Archiving & Preservation

Cybercartography & the New Economy

Cinema

Sound

Open Source

Output

Nunaliit Atlas Framework 2.0
(Old v1 site)

Publications

Global Map

Cybercartography is a new theoretical construct proposed by D.R. Fraser Taylor (1997, 2003). It is the organization, presentation, analysis and communication of spatially referenced information on a wide variety of topics of interest and use to society in an interactive, dynamic, multimedia, multisensory and multidisciplinary format. Beyond its multiple specificities (Taylor, 2003), cybercartography offers an unprecedented opportunity for deeply rethinking the way we design, produce, disseminate and use maps on the Internet. These changes require a new cartographic paradigm that can be approached from different perspectives.

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Cybercartography and Interdisciplinarity

The effective integration of different disciplines and methodologies is a challenge. To address this challenge we propose the Cybercartographic Integrated Research Framework (CIRF, Eddy, 2002). This framework will be used to better address interdisciplinarity complexity while organizational theory will inform how we collaborate to facilitate this process.

Cybercartography and Education

Maps, as well as the Internet, are often used for educational purposes. But we know little about the pedagogical rewards of combining maps (and other media) and the Internet. This research will explore assumptions using methods from cognitive science and human computer interaction research.

Cybercartography and Territorial Representations

Because map forms have changed and are constantly changing with the Internet, one can argue that cybermaps change the way people envision territories. What are the consequences of cybercartography and the way spatial phenomena are analyzed (visualization) / portrayed (communication) / understood (deciphered)?

Cybercartography and Cartography

Cybercartography is a new approach to map making and it is vital to analyze what influence the "old" medium (like paper maps) - highly connotated - should have on these new media. What should be kept (or not) from these "old" media? Cybercartography will also involve a status change for (cyber)cartographers. What might the consequences of cybercartography be on the secular discipline of cartography?

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Seven Elements & Six Ideas

The main products of cybercartography are Cybercartographic Atlases. A cybercartographic atlas is a metaphor for all kinds of qualitative and quantitative information linked through their location. Location is a central organizing principle informed by new concepts of the map and the process of mapping. Cybercartography is a holistic concept which combines these elements and is informed by the interaction between theory and practice. While the map is considered central to cybercartography, the notion of geographic narrative underpins the concept. Maps and associated media can help to tell stories about people, places, space and society. The following ideas are central to D. R. F. Taylor's current thinking on cybercartography:

7 Elements

  1. Is multisensory using vision, hearing, touch and eventually smell and taste
  2. Uses multimedia formats and new telecommunications technologies such as the World Wide Web (e.g. Web 2.0, mobile devices)
  3. Is highly interactive and engages the user in new ways - user-centric and interactive, understanding and engaging the user in new ways through user needs analysis and usability studies, wiki atlases and "edutainment" (online educational games). Cybercartographic "users" can become "creators".
  4. Is not a stand alone product like the traditional map but part of an information/analytical package including both qualitative and quantitative information. The Cybercartographic Atlas Framework provides an organizational approach for the emerging products and processes of the Web 2.0 era of social computing.
  5. Is compiled by teams of individuals typically from different domains including disciplines not normally associated with cartography
  6. Is applied to a wide range of topics, not only to location finding and the physical environment. Responds to societal demands including topics not usually "mapped"
  7. Involves new research and development partnerships among academia, government, civil society and the private sector

6 Ideas

  1. People use all of their senses in learning. Consequently, cybercartography creates representations which allow them to do this through cybercartographic atlases.
  2. People learn in different ways and prefer teaching and learning materials in different formats. Cybercartographic atlases provide people with a choice of learning styles or combinations of learning styles. The same information is presented in multiple formats.
  3. Effective teaching and learning takes place best when individuals are actively involved and engaged. The multimedia and interactive approaches used in cybercartographic atlases facilitate this.
  4. People need the power to create their own narratives, ie. the social computing revolution. The Cybercartographic Atlas Framework provides a mechanism for doing this which gives some structure and metadata indicating the quality and nature of the narratives that people create. The Framework is also open source and does not require special knowledge in order to create a narrative.
  5. Many topics of interest to society are very complex. There is no simple "right" or "wrong" answer to many questions such as global warming and climate change. To understand these complexities different ontologies or narratives on the same topic should be presented in ways that people can easily understand without privileging one over the other. Cybercartographic atlases do this. Of particular importance is giving voices to local people. They can speak for themselves rather than having others speak for them.
  6. There has been a shift from "map user" to "map creator" which establishes new forms of democratized teaching and learning. The Cybercartographic Atlas Framework helps to democratize mapping in new ways.

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Proof of Concept

Exploring Sound Design in Cybercartography


Researchers:

S. Caquard (GCRC), G. Brauen (GCRC), B. Wright (ICSLAC) & P. Jasen (ICSLAC)
Objectives of this research:

(1) Explore the engaging and immersive dimension of sounds in cartography for educationnal purpose
(2) Apply theory from cinema to cybercartography
(3) Develop a sound map prototype of the exploration of Antarctica (see the figure and just imagine the music associated...)

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Interactive 3D terrain model of the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica


Researcher:

Birgit A. Woods (GCRC)

Acknowledgements:

U.S.G.S: Cheryl A Hallam for providing the McMurdo Dry Valleys LIDAR files. Birgit Woods: Creator of the 3D learning environment. Also used towards her M.Sc. Thesis Research. Wataru Watanabe: Industrial Design student who gave useful aesthetic advice.

Basic Description:

The 3D terrain model of the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica was created to provide an interactive and engaging content module within the Cybercartographic Atlas of Antarctica from which students can learn about geomorphology - the study of the land surface characteristics.

By exploring the terrain, students learn about the unique environment of the Dry Valleys from glaciers and glacial lakes, to ventifacts (rock sculptures created by wind erosion), and mummified seals. There is a video playing within the model of a helicopter flying-through a labyrinth of melt-water erosion gullies, and there is a hidden element as well, where students follow the sound of running water to the only unfrozen saline pond of the Dry Valleys, thereby encouraging the notion of discovery through serendipitous exploration (Cartwright, 2004).

Technical Description:

The 3D terrain was acquired by the U.S. Geological Survey. It consists of a 30m resolution elevation model derived from LIDAR remote sensing over the Dry Valleys and an imagery file at a resolution of 10m. Steps involved in creating the interactive model for students include: draping the imagery over the elevation file, and cropping the data to focus on a specific area of the Dry Valleys using ESRI ArcView. Using ESRI ArcScene, the 3D terrain was exported to the Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) which is a .wrl file, at a low resolution. This was done to improve performance for the end user. Three areas of high resolution were then added to the file as well as objects, signs, posters, and sound using Parallel Graphics VRML Pad.

To view the model the user needs to install a VRML plug-in of which there are many freely available. Parallel Graphics Cortona is a common VRML plug-in. Follow the link below to install it http://www.parallelgraphics.com/products/cortona/.

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Designing Interactive Sound Maps Using Scalable Vector Graphics

Researcher:

Glenn Brauen (GCRC)

Basic Description:

This research uses interactive sound as an added dimension of maps designed to be accessible over the world wide web. A map of results from the Canadian federal election of June 28, 2004 was created showing a selection of electoral districts in the vicinity of Ottawa, Ontario. The sounds are conceived as an integral part of the map, providing information that is not available visually but augmenting the visual information to provide new insights into the subject matter of the map. The map, implemented using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG), JavaScript and recorded audio files, uses recorded speeches of the leaders of the federal political parties to provide an auditory dimension. The auditory dimension reintroduces some of the complexity of multi-party electoral systems and gives an impression of the competing views engaged in the election. The Ottawa Area Federal Election Sound Map is available online here.

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Other Research Work


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Publications & Presentations

Books

Taylor, D. R. F. (ed.), Lauriault, T.P. (associate ed.)(2014.) 2nd ed. of Cybercartography: Theory and Practice entitled Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). (Ed.) Cybercartography: Theory and Practice. Vol. 4 in Modern Cartography Series. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 574 pgs.

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Book Chapters

Aporta, C.; Kristch, I; Andre, A.; Benson, K; Shoehorse, Sharon; Firth, William, Carry, Del (2014). The Gwich'in Atlas: Place Names, Maps, and Narratives, in Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping,Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Brauen, Glenn. (2014). Interactive Audiovisual Design for Cartography: Survey, Prospects, and Example. Chapter in Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications in Indigenous Mapping, ed. D. R. Fraser Taylor, associate ed. Tracey P. Lauriault, Amsterdam: Elsevier. P 23.

Caquard, S., and Naud D. (2014). A Spatial Typology of Cinematographic Narratives. In Taylor D.R.F. (ed) and Lauriault T.P. associate ed.), Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications in Indigenous Mapping (2nd edition), Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Di Leo Browne, Ljubicic, G. (2014). Considerations for Informed Consent in the Context of Online, Interactive, Atlas Creation. Chapter in Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications in Indigenous Mapping, ed. D. R. Fraser Taylor, Tracey P. Lauriault, 2nd ed., Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Engler, N. J., Scassa, T., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2013). Synthesis of VGI and Cybercartography, in D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and Practice, 2nd ed. Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.Keith, Darren, Crockatt, Kim, Hayes, Amos (2014) .The Kitikmeot Place Name Atlas. Chapter in Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (Assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Hayes, A.; Pulsifer, P.L.; Fiset, J.P. (2014). The Nunaliit Cybercartographic Atlas Framework. Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F. (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Elsevier: Amsterdam.

Lauriault, T. P., (2014), Pilot Atlas of the Risk of Homelessness, Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F. (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Elsevier: Amsterdam

Lauriault, T. P and Taylor, D. R. F. (2014), Archiving and Preserving Cybercartography, Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (Assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Ljubicic, G,; Pulsifer, P. L.; Hayes, A.; Taylor, D. R. F. (2014), The Creation of the Inuit siku
(Sea Ice) Atlas. Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F. (ed.), Lauriault, T.P. (associate ed.) Development sin the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Payne, Carol, Hayes, Amos, Ellison, Sheena (2014) Mapping Views from the North: Cybercartographic Technologyand Inuit Photographic Encounters. Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F. (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Elsevier: Amsterdam

Scassa, T., D. R. Fraser Taylor, & Tracey Lauriault, 2014. Cybercartography and Traditional Knowledge: Responding to Legal and Ethical Challenges, in D.R. Fraser Taylor, ed., Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping. Amsterdam: Elsevier

Pyne, S. (2014). The Role of Experience in the Iterative Development of the Lake Huron Treaty Atlas. In Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications in Indigenous Mapping, Second Edition, ed. D.R.F. Taylor, Associate ed. Lauriault, T. P., Amsterdam, Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F.; Cowan, C.; Ljubicic, Sullivan, C. (2014). Cybercartography for Education: The Application of Cybercartography to Teaching and Learning in Nunavut, Canada. Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F. (ed), Lauriault, T.P (associate ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F.; Lauriault, T.P. (2014). Conclusion and the Future of Cybercartography. Chapter in Taylor, D. R. F (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (Assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F. (2014). Some Recent Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography. Introductory chapter in D. R. F (ed) and T. P. Lauriault (Assoc. ed) Developments in the Theory and Practice of Cybercartography: Applications and Indigenous Mapping, Elsevier.

Araujo de Almeida, R., & Tsuji, B. (2005). Interactive mapping for people who are blind and visually impaired. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice_ (pp. 411-431). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Baulch, S., MacDonald, R., Pulsifer, P., Taylor, D. R. F., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Chapter 21 - cybercartography for education: The case of the cybercartographic atlas of antarctica. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 491-515). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Caquard, S., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Chapter 12 - art, maps and cybercartography: Stimulating reflexivity among map users. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 285-307). Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Cartwright, W. (2005). Linking geographical facts with cartographic artefacts. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 331-348). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Eddy, B., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Exploring the concept of cybercartography using the holonic tenets of integral theory. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 35-61). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Eddy, B. (2005). Applying a cybercartographic-human interface (CHI) model to create a cybercartographic atlas of canada's trade with the world. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 517-540). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Gartner, G. (2005). TeleCartography: A new means of GeoCommunication. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 373-388). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Greenspan, B. (2005). Mapping play: What cybercartographers can learn from popular culture. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 309-329). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Harrap, R., Talwar, S., Journeay, M., Grant, R., Van Ulden, J., & Denny, S. (2005). Exploring conceptual landscapes: The design and implementation of the georgia basin digital library. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 433-460). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Lauriault, T., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Cybercartography and the new economy: Collaborative research in action. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice. amsterdam: Elsevier (pp. 181-210). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Lindgaard, G., Brown, A., & Bronsther, A. (2005). Interface design challenges in virtual space. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice_ (pp. 211-229). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Martinez, E., & Reyes, C. (2005). Cybercartography and society. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 99-121). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Monmonier, M. (2005). POMP and circumstance: Plain old map products in a cybercartographic world. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice_ (pp. 15-34). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Peterson, M. (2005). Pervasive public map displays. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 349-371). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Pulsifer, P., Parush, A., Lindgaard, G., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). The development of the cybercartographic atlas of antarctica. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 461-490). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Pulsifer, P., & Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). The cartographer as mediator: Cartographic representation from shared geographic information. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice. (pp. 149-179). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Reyes, C. (2005). Cybercartography from a modelling perspective. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 63-97). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Reyes, C., & Martinez, E. (2005). Technology and culture in cybercartography. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 123-148). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Roberts, S., Parush, A., & Lindgaard, G. (2005). Cognitive theories and aids to support navigation of multimedia information space. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 231-256). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Introduction: The theory and practice of cybercartography. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 1-13). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Taylor, D. R. F. (2005). Remaining challenges and the future of cybercartography. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 541-560). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Theberge, P. (2005). Sound fragments: The uses of sound and music in interactive media. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 389-410). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier.

Trbovich, P., Lindgaard, G., & Dillon, D. (2005). Cybercartography: A multimodal approach. In D. R. F. Taylor (Ed.), Cybercartography: Theory and practice (pp. 257-284). Amsterdam, NL: Elsevier. 

  • Taylor, D. R. F. (2003). The Concept of Cybercartography in Peterson, M. (ed). Maps and the Internet, Cambridge: Elsevier, 403-418.

Taylor, D. R. F. (2003). The Concept of Cybercartography in Peterson, M. (ed). Maps and the Internet, Cambridge: Elsevier, 403-418.

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Papers & Presentations at Conferences

Hayes, A., 2014. Nunaliit Cybercartographic Framework, presented to a workshop entitled The Data Visualization Movement: Implications for Public Management Research and Teaching hosted as part of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Research Society for Public Management, Carleton University, April 8

Taylor, D. R. F., 2011. Challenges for the Future of National Mapping Organizations. Presentation to the National Mapping Organizations-Industry Exchange Forum, Plenary Session, Indian School of Business, Hyderabad, January 1

Taylor, D. R. F., 2011. The Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre, Carleton University. Presented to Canadian Geomatics Science and Technology Partnering Seminar, Hyderabad, India, 19 January

Taylor, D. R. F., 2011, International Perspectives on Geographical Information Management, Inaugural session of Geospatial World Forum: Dimensions and Directions of Geospatial Industry, Hyderabad, India,January 18.

Taylor, D.R.F., 2010. Key Issues in the Management of Geographic Information: The International Perspective, Seminario Internacional: "Informacion geoespacial y tome de decisiones: actualidad y retos", CentroGEO, Mexico City, November 24-25.

Taylor, D. R. F., 2010. Access to and Interoperability of Geospatial Data. Presentation to CentroGEO and INEGI, Mexico City, January 20. CD-ROM.

Taylor, D.R.F., 2009. A Tool for Natural Disaster Mitigation for Asia and Pacific Regions, Presentation to United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok, October, 26. E/CONF.100/IP.2, pp. 11.

Taylor, D. R. F., 2009. Global Mapping: A tool for natural disaster mitigation. United Nations Regional Cartographic Conference for the Americas (UNRCC), New York, August 10-14. E/CONF.99/IP.7, 11 p.

Taylor, D. R. F. , 1997. Maps and Mapping in the Information Era, Keynote address to the 18th International Cartographic Association Conference, 12 June 1997, Stockholm, Sweden, Proceedings of ICC97, Volume 1 (Lars Ottoson, Ed). Gavle: Swedish Cartographic Society, 1-10.

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Reports

Taylor, D. R. Fraser, 2010. Global Geographic Information Management: Some Institutional and Data Sharing Issues in Integrating Geographical and Statistical Data Presentation to the Second Preparatory Meeting of the Proposed United Nations Committee on Global Geographic Information Management New York, May 10-11.

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Congnitive Science Team - CACR and AceLab (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
Cybercartography - Publications (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
Cybercartography Atlas Usability Design and Testing (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
Games, Narratives, Hypertext, Mods and Artistic Representations (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
GeoPervasive Game (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
Hot-Cog - HotLab and Cognitive Science (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)
Multisensory, Multimodal and Multimedia (Geomatics and Cartographic Research Centre)

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